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Analysis of the advantages of perovskite in new solar cell materials

2019-04-28
In 1893, Perovskite, named after the Russian mineralographer Lev Perovski, had the CaTiO3 formula. This new crystal was first discovered in the southern ural mountains.Perovskite is a new favorite of photovoltaic cells. Perovskite in condensed matter physics refers to the crystal form of ABX3, which contains neither calcium nor titanium, let alone a kind of ore.A is typically an organic group, such as methylamine, B is typically A metal ion, such as lead, and X is typically A halogen ion, such as iodide or chloride.Such is the material that Science named one of the world's top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013.Because the preparation of this material is simply too simple, the two kinds of salt mixed together, stir, spin coated and baked to make.
 
As a technology to directly convert solar energy into electricity, photovoltaic power generation occupies an important position in the world's energy supply, and is bound to become the main supplier of energy in the future.The main solar cell materials are crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride.The commercialized first-generation crystalline silicon solar cells have a conversion rate of nearly 20 percent, accounting for about 90 percent of the market, but their development is limited by the high energy consumption and the need for expensive, high-purity materials in the production process.In the recent five years, the conversion rate of the new perovskite battery rapidly increased from 3.8% to more than 20.1%, which is similar to the commercialized silicon-based solar cells for many years, showing an attractive prospect and quickly becoming a research hotspot.
 
Advantages of perovskite solar cells
Perovskite solar cells have received a lot of attention recently and have many advantages, including:

  1. High conversion efficiency
After nearly 50 years of development, silicon-based solar cells have a maximum conversion rate of 25 percent, while perovskite solar cells have improved to 20.1 percent in nearly five years.The high conversion rate of perovskite solar cells is mainly related to its perovskite materials.The chemical formula of perovskite material is ABX3, where A is CH3NH3+, B is Pb2+, X is Cl-, Br-, etc.This kind of structure light absorption performance is better, 400 nm thick film can absorb ultraviolet to near infrared spectrum of all photons.In addition, the crystallization performance of the material is good at low temperature, which is conducive to carrier diffusion.Secondly, it can effectively transmit electrons and holes, and the electron and hole diffusion length can both exceed 1,000 nm.Generally speaking, the larger the carrier diffusion length is, the higher its quantum efficiency and photocurrent density will be, which is conducive to improving the conversion rate.Perovskite materials have much higher carrier life than other solar cell materials.Moreover, the charge carrier mobility of the inorganic component is also higher, which makes the energy loss less in the photoelectric conversion process.These characteristics make perovskite solar cells have high conversion rate, and the theoretical conversion efficiency can be up to 50%.

 
  1. Simple structure.
Perovskite solar cells mainly contain transparent electrode, hole transport layer, perovskite absorption layer (including porous support layer), dense layer and conductive glass layer, which can be made into p-i-n type plane structure. Compared with other solar cells, the structure is simple, which is conducive to large-scale production.
  1. The production process is relatively simple and the source of raw materials is abundant.
The core materials of perovskite solar cells are soluble and can be prepared by a process without vacuum.Its raw materials are abundant, unlike the high purity raw materials needed for silicon-based solar cells.The us department of energy says the rapid development of perovskite solar cell technology will make it possible to generate electricity from the sun as cheaply as conventional sources such as coal and natural gas.
  1. Wider application.
Perovskite solar cells are thin film materials, which can be made into flexible substrates such as plastics and fabrics, making them a good choice for flexible energy devices. They can also be applied in remote areas such as mountains, deserts and islands, saving transmission costs and reducing energy consumption and waste.
 
Perovskite solar cells have attracted much attention due to their high conversion rate, but also have the advantages of simple structure, simple process preparation and flexible devices, etc., which are the development direction of solar cells in the future.However, at present, perovskite solar cells are not stable, the area is too small to be practical, the commonly used cavitation transport materials are toxic and expensive, and there are hysteresis phenomena, which are urgent problems to be solved in large-scale commercial production of perovskite solar cells.Therefore, the future development trend of perovskite solar cells is to improve the conversion rate and stability, reduce the cost, simplify the process and promote large-scale production.Perovskite solar cells are expected to be widely used after technical reform and innovation.