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Application of silicon carbide in the field of electric vehicles

2019-05-13
At present, power devices based on silicon materials have been approaching the theoretical limit determined by the characteristics of the materials themselves with the increasingly perfect structural design and manufacturing process. The third-generation semiconductor materials can replace the first-generation semiconductor materials, meet the higher demand in the future, and will be widely used in the industry.The third-generation semiconductor materials have wider forbidden band width, higher breakdown electric field, thermal conductivity, electronic saturation rate and higher radiation resistance, which are suitable for making devices with high temperature, high frequency, radiation resistance and high power. The representative materials include silicon carbide, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, diamond and aluminum nitride.At present, the most mature and the application potential of the largest of the third generation semiconductor material for silicon carbide, the indicators are better than silicon, the band gap width is almost 3 times of silicon, the theory of working temperature is 600 ℃, far higher than silicon devices working temperature.In addition, gallium nitride is also a third-generation semiconductor material with certain application potential. Other materials are in the research stage.

Silicon carbide, as an important core electronic material related to the future ev charging module and electric module, can realize the energy supply, low-carbon, intelligent and sustainable development of green travel, and finally seize the commanding heights of future industrial development.

The performance improvement of silicon carbide devices on charging modules is mainly reflected in three aspects :(1) increase the frequency and simplify the power supply network;(2) reduce loss and temperature rise.Tell from the power supply module returns, such as using ordinary silicon power device, the internal temperature is very high, short life device, using silicon carbide device, low temperature rise is beneficial to extend the life of the charging pile, the other parts to reduce the input offset sic device raises costs, can make the life of silicon carbide charging pile up to 5 ~ 8 years, far higher than the service life of silicon-based charging pile;(3) reduce volume and improve efficiency.Based on our analysis of the advantages of sic devices in wired charging (high efficiency, low temperature rise, high density, low loss), the overall cost will be lower.

Silicon carbide devices face many problems in the application design of charging pile module:
(1) System stability problems caused by dynamic and static index changes in silicon carbide devices and module switching losses.
(2) When silicon carbide devices operate at high frequency, the complexity of power consumption, speed and other related designs of the drive circuit increases.
(3) High frequency of silicon carbide devices and high speed on-off switch cause serious electromagnetic interference and increase of parasitic parameters.
(4) Develop efficient silicon carbide MOSFET devices to replace the 1,200v silicon MOSFET parallel diode of current charging pile, and solve the reliability problem of long-term application of silicon carbide MOSFET gate oxygen layer.
(5) The charging module has a high demand for the performance of silicon carbide devices, so relevant electric design should be strengthened.

Silicon carbide devices can improve the power conversion performance of pure electric vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles.Electric cars, electric motor module is active load, its speed range is very wide, and in the process of driving need frequent acceleration and deceleration, complex working conditions than the average speed control system, using silicon carbide power device can effectively improve its drive system, a higher breakdown voltage, lower open resistance, larger thermal conductivity, and can work under the higher temperature stability, originally a few kilograms of heat sink can be sharply reduced or even delete directly, will cause the electric car design revolutionary change, can reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicles or hybrid power conversion loss of 20%,It is of great significance to greatly increase the range of electric vehicles.