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Basic properties and applications of nano zinc sulfide (ZnS)

Basic properties of ZnS
ZnS is a typical representative of the H-generation wide bandgap semiconductor materials. It can be seen from the figure that in each of the two crystal structures, a tetrahedron is formed for every four sulfur ions, and a zinc ion is contained in the tetrahedron to form a ZnS tetrahedral structure. The respective tetrahedral structures constituting the ZnS are connected to each other to form a body structure. Because zinc ions account for only half of the tetrahedral space, different tetrahedral arrangements result in different crystal structures, resulting in different optoelectronic properties.
                        Figure 1 Cubic phase zinc blende                                                                              Figure 2    Hhexagonal phase wurtzite
It has two crystal structures, cubic phase zinc blende and hexagonal phase wurtzite. The structure and luminescence properties of the bulk material have been systematically studied. The band gaps are 3.67-3.75 eV and 3.91-3.94 eV, respectively. The intrinsic luminescence is the blue light band. However, the preparation of ZnS nanomaterials and the luminescent properties of ZnS with different sizes, different dopings and different morphologies have not been studied in depth. 
2 ZnS application
As a wide-bandgap semiconductor, ZnS has a very broad application prospect and is used in medicine, pharmacy, sensors, detectors and other fields. In general, the stability of the physicochemical properties of semiconductor materials is closely related to the size of the forbidden band width. The greater the forbidden band width, the more stable the physicochemical properties and the higher the application value. Not only does ZnS have a high band gap, it is also a direct bandgap semiconductor material. In the direct bandgap semiconductor material, the momentum of the electrons during the transition can be kept constant, so that the energy of the electron holes is emitted in the form of light, so that the luminous efficiency is high. ZnS has excellent properties and many of its properties are widely used in many fields.

2.1 Optical Applications
According to the wide-band absorption of ZnS materials, invisibility cloaks can be designed because the reduction in particle size increases the absorption of infrared light by the material, which makes the manufacture of invisibility hoods possible. By using the blue shift phenomenon, a light-emitting diode with higher luminous intensity can be manufactured.
2.2 Electrical applications
The high specific surface area and chemical activity make ZnS widely used in the fields of photosensing, gas sensing and the like. With the help of ZnS detectors, it is possible to monitor changes in light, gas and humidity. In addition, ZnS is by far the best performing electroluminescent material. 
2.3 Doping application
The application of ZnS doping began in the 1990s. It has been found that after doping, the properties of ZnS are significantly improved, and even some new properties not available in pure phase ZnS are obtained. At present, there are two main principles for the ZnS doping: the first one is by lattice doping, and the ZnS undergoes lattice sag, so that the zinc light performance is improved. The second is to use the means of element doping to control the unfavorable changes of ZnS itself.