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Performance and research status of aluminum diboride (AlB2)

As early as 1925, H. Funk synthesized the AlB2 phase by heating the Al-B mixture at 1000℃under the condition of rich Al, but the purity was not very high. Subsequently, Edward et al. gave diffraction data for AlB2 in 1956.It has been reported in the literature that during the preparation of AlB2, there is a transition of AlB2 to AlB12. In 1979, GVSamsonova et al. synthesized AlB2 and AlB12 compounds by Al-BC system, and discussed their structure and properties. Aluminum diboride is hexagonal crystal form, and the electronic structure of Al atom is [Ne]3s23p1. The electronic structure of the B atom is [He]2s22p1, and the chemical bond in AlB2 is SP2 hybridization.
The nature and application of AlB2 materials have also received extensive attention. It was once speculated that AlB2 has superconductivity like MgB2. Because it has a similar hexagonal crystal form, S. Souma et al. studied the electronic structure of AlB2 by synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, pointing out that AlB2 is different from MgB2. Electronic structure. Among them, the σ valence band of MgB2 is partially occupied, and AlB2 is completely occupied, so that superconductivity is not exhibited. E. Sirtl and L. M. Woerner used aluminothermic method to rapidly react with B2O3 and excess Al at 1500℃ and then transferred to 975℃for slow reaction to form a sheet material. The measured room temperature conductance is between 3.1×10 and 7.7×10 ohm/cm, the conductivity type is p-type conduction, and the temperature is above 1.5K without superconductivity. In addition, AlB2 has high melting point and high chemical stability, and can be used as a high-temperature refractory material and wear-resistant aluminum matrix composite (AMCs) filling enhancer, especially the nano-scale AlB2 material has better doping enhancement performance.
However, to date, studies on aluminum diboride nanostructured materials have not been reported. Compared with AlB2 bulk materials, AlB2 nanomaterials have a large scattering cross section and better wear resistance, and are widely used in the defense industry and civil industry.