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Research progress of tin dioxide anode materials for lithium ion batteries

The nano-size effect of nano SnO2 can reduce the absolute volume change of SnO2. The large specific surface area can provide more lithium storage sites, increase the contact interface between electrolyte and active material, and shorten the transmission and diffusion path of electrons and lithium ions. Improve the kinetics of electrochemical reactions. Common nanostructures include zero-dimensional nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes, two-dimensional nanosheets, and three-dimensional hierarchical structures.

 Schematic diagram of lithium ion battery structure

The nanos SnO2 and carbon matrix composites can be used to further improve the cycle and rate of SnO2. After the nano SnO2 is tightly combined with carbon, in addition to the carbon matrix with mechanical toughness to buffer the volume change of SnO2, inhibit the agglomeration between SnO2 nanoparticles, and improve the conductivity of the electrode material, the composite itself also has a nanostructure. Increasing the contact interface between the active material and the electrolyte, shortening the transmission and diffusion distance of electrons and lithium ions, and improving the electrochemical performance of SnO2.
Proper nano-design and carbon coating (or support) can effectively improve the electrochemical performance of SnO2-based anode materials, such as lithium storage capacity, cycle life and rate performance. However, there are still three key and urgent problems to be solved in the SnO2-based anode material: one is the lower first coulombic efficiency (about 60%), the other is that the nano-structure will weaken the volumetric energy density of the battery, and the third is higher. The amorphous carbon content reduces the operating voltage of the battery. These problems severely restrict the industrial application of SnO2-based anode materials. It is expected to solve the above problems by adding a suitable additive to the electrolyte or introducing a metal catalyst (such as cobalt) in situ in the composite material, thereby promoting the development of the SnO2-based anode material.