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  • Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted major attention in the last decade for their unique properties and promise for next generation electronics and energy conversion devices. The discovery of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in particular has inspired a fervent search for other 2D materials with unexpected and useful properties.

    Hexagonal boron nitride 2d is a layered material with a honeycomb structure that strongly resembles graphite. Hexagonal boron atomic layers are covalently bonded to one another in the basal planes and weakly interact with each other in the interlayers, known as the van der Waals forces. This unusually strong intra-layer bonding reduces electron delocalization and makes h-BN one of the best electrical insulators. Its low dielectric constant and high temperature stability make it a promising candidate for next-generation nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and electrocatalysis.

    The crystal structure of h-BN is isostructural with diamond and graphite. The cubic form of boron nitride (c-BN) is less stable than the hexagonal h-BN, but the conversion rate between the two forms is negligible at room temperature. Cubic BN and hex-h-BN are also isomorphous with carbon materials such as ternary tungsten carbide (W-C).

    2D-hBN has several intriguing intrinsic properties that are of great interest for various applications. These include resistance to oxidation, extreme mechanical hardness, high thermal conductivity, photoluminescence and chemical inertness. In addition, it has a high surface energy that enables facile functionalization with organic molecules. This article provides a systematic elaboration of the physics and engineering of 2D-hBN and reviews state-of-the-art synthesis methods including mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, ion insertion and pulsed laser deposition.

    Jul 30
    2023
  • PVC is to be avoided at all costs as it corrodes metal parts of the laser cutter and gives off highly toxic fumes. It’s also bad for your health and is classed as a chemical warfare agent. Avoid it at all costs and check your material’s MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Kydex and Foamex contain PVC and should be avoided too.

    PTFE or Teflon (commonly used in cooking pans) can be cut, engraved and marked very easily with a CO2 laser and provides an excellent result. However, if the product is metallized it is not possible to cut through this as the metallization absorbs the laser energy and stops it from cutting.

    Polyimide or Kapton tape is a good material to use for laser engraving and marking as it is very durable, however it chars and produces a lot of smoke when being processed so caution should be taken. The same can be said for many foams; they can be very effective to laser cut but care needs to be taken with the type of foam you choose as some give off toxic / corrosive fumes when burnt.

    The type of materials that can be laser cut will depend on the type of laser cutter you have. A CO2 laser cutter is more likely to be able to cut metal than a fibre laser and will be able to cut a wider range of materials. Always consult the laser cutter manufacturer’s manual before attempting to cut a new material to ensure you have an accurate understanding of what the machine can and cannot do.

    Jul 10
    2023
  • Few companies have made as many important contributions to post-World War II American life as DuPont. Its scientists created Freon, allowing mass-market refrigerators and air conditioners; it invented nylon and the synthetic fibers Rayon and Lycra; and it churned out Teflon, a nonstick coating used on pots and pans. But DuPont also manufactured a number of dangerous chemicals, including fungicides and insecticides, rubber and industrial gases.

    In the 1950s, as the company expanded its Teflon production, it started testing its chemical for safety. The test results were startling: Exposure to C8, which DuPont named after its chemical formula, led to enlarged livers in rats and rabbits. Later that decade, researchers asked a group of volunteers to smoke cigarettes laced with C8 and found that nine out of 10 became noticeably ill for an average of nearly nine hours, suffering from chills, backaches, fevers, coughing and more.

    The company knew about these health risks, but it did not disclose them publicly, even as workers at the Parkersburg plant where the chemical was produced began reporting illnesses ranging from headaches to endocrine disorders. In the 1970s, as pressure mounted for government regulation of chemicals, DuPont and 3M negotiated the creation of the Toxic Substances Control Act, or TSCA, a landmark law that required companies to perform safety tests on new substances before they could be put on the market.

    As a result, DuPont and 3M were able to block a key provision in TSCA that would have required such testing. That was a turning point in the fight to protect the environment and people from dangerous chemicals.

    Jul 10
    2023
  • Manufacturer & distributor of graphite powder for metallurgy, friction modifier & polymer additive applications. Standard granulation sizes range from 5 mesh USS to 0.7 microns. Also offer high-purity, high-temperature and anticorrosion lubricant base stocks. Provide custom formulations, particle characterization & sintering services. Products include amorphous, crystalline flake & vein graphites as well as synthetic (artificial) and calcined petroleum coke.

    The most stable form of carbon under normal conditions, graphite is an allotrope of elemental carbon with a unique structure consisting of one-atom thick hexagonal networks of sp2 hybridized sheets. These are bonded to each other by weak van der Waals forces and p-p interactions of delocalized electrons. This gives it a low hardness, perfect cleavage and slipperiness, unlike diamond's stiff feel. Graphite exhibits superb electrical conductivity and electroheat property and can be used to make conductive pastes and electrodes for powder metallurgy & foundry facings.

    Graphite powder is a dry lubricant that works very well in extremely cold temperatures and high-temperatures. It can also be added to oils or greases to create specialized lubricants for different types of tribological requirements. The lubrication is very good due to the vast number of electrons that are delocalized within these layers of carbon.

    Pine-Pro graphite powder is the perfect lubricant to use on mousetrap powered vehicles because it decreases the coefficient of friction by 20-50%! Simply apply a liberal amount to both surfaces that rub together. The number one force acting against a vehicle's motion is friction, so this lubricant will dramatically increase the speed and travel distance of your mousetrap-powered vehicle!

    Jul 10
    2023
  • Cubic Boron Nitride (cbn) is the second hardest material known to man, surpassed only by diamond. It is used in cutting and grinding applications for ferrous metals as a replacement for diamond due to its superior thermal stability and resistance to chemical attack, which make it ideal for lapping hard materials that carbonize when used with diamond abrasives.

    Unlike conventional carbide, cbn maintains its hardness to temperatures of over 1,200 degC, making it well suited for high-temperature machining and grinding applications. It also exhibits good chemical resistance, and its low affinity with oxygen means that it can be used with water-based coolants which are prone to destroying diamond abrasives.

    Hyperion carries a wide variety of cbn sizes, grades and textures from various manufacturers. Please speak with your salesperson for assistance in selecting the cbn best suited to your application.

    Wide bandgap semiconductor cbn is a promising material for high power microwave and next generation power electronics. However, to date the electronic, structural and optical characterization of commercial cBN crystal platelets has been limited. Here we report RC series zero phonon line defect emission peaks observed in electron beam irradiated and oxygen ion implanted cBN crystals at room temperature. This unique combination of highest thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and a predicted breakdown field makes cBN attractive for future quantum sensing applications.

    Jul 10
    2023
  • Whether you’re buying a jacket, pair of shoes or backpacking sleeping bag, there are a lot of different fabric technologies to choose from. Choosing the right one can be daunting, but knowing some of the specifics of different technologies and how they differ from each other can help you narrow down your options.

    gore tex pfoa

    For the first time, Gore is offering a version of its key waterproofing membrane that does not contain the toxic chemicals known as PFOA (perfluorooctanoate). These chemicals are found in many household products and are persistent in the environment, and their elimination from all products is a top priority for many outdoor brands.

    Gore’s new option, called ePTFE, will still use the same material as its existing product, but it uses a different coating treatment that does not require PFOA. Gore says its ePTFE will offer similar performance to the existing product in the same areas where it is used, including protection from rain and wind.

    Invented by Wibert Gore in 1976, this space-age material is made from porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and is best known for protective, breathable rainwear. It’s also widely used in the military for helmets and other gear, as well as in a variety of applications in industry, including wires that transmit electricity at lightning-fast rates underground in oil drilling operations and under the sea in submarines.

    PTFE has outstanding electrical properties, which are why it’s also used in ribbon cable for computers. It can even be used to replace human tissue in vascular grafts. It’s strong, biocompatible and can carry blood at arterial pressures without leaking. It can also be formed into small forms to create insulated electrical wires for the brain probes that help doctors diagnose cancer and other serious conditions.

    Jul 10
    2023
  • The ptfe oil additive has come in for much criticism in recent years by experts in the field of lubrication. Perhaps the harshest testimonial came from DuPont Chemical Corporation, the inventor and holder of the patents and trademarks for Teflon. In a statement issued about fifteen years ago, the company's Fluoropolymers Division Product Specialist J.F. Imbalzano said that although PTFE, the substance in which the ptfe oil additive is based, does have some useful properties as a lubricant, it is not an effective ingredient in any product intended for use in internal combustion engines.

    Those promoting the ptfe oil additive claim that it reduces friction between metal parts by suspending tiny particles of PTFE in the engine oil. These particles act like roller bearings between the moving metal parts, eliminating friction and preventing wear. The ptfe oil additive makers also claim that it saves fuel because the less friction means that the engine runs more efficiently.

    But experts in the field of lubrication are generally skeptical of these claims. They point out that there is no way to tell if the PTFE particles will actually be present in the oil at operating temperature. The particle size is important, because if the particles are too small they will just settle out of the oil and clog the filter. Moreover, the oil additives containing PTFE typically contain solvents that can strip away the boundary lubrication provided by normal engine oils.

    In addition, most experts note that the ptfe oil additives have not been proven to reduce engine wear on anything like a long term basis. They say that the manufacturers of these products have no test data available to support their claims. They also cite the fact that most major car and engine makers actively discourage the use of these products, often warning that they will void warranty coverage if the additives are used.

    Jul 10
    2023
  • SSI Aeration has a wide range of membrane diffusers that are available in both EPDM and PTFE seats. Both types of valve seats have pros and cons, depending on the application.

    EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) membranes are more economical than PTFE, which makes them the ideal choice for plants operating on tighter budgets. They’re also more durable than PTFE, so they can be used for longer timespan before needing to be replaced or repaired.

    As an industrial wastewater treatment system material, EPDM has a good resistance to heat, steam, and bright conditions that can degrade other materials over time. It’s also effective with a broad spectrum of chemicals that are common in industrial wastewater.

    Over time, however, EPDM can begin to show signs of degradation as it ages and is exposed to harsh conditions. These issues include plasticizer leakage and creep, resulting in decreased oxygen transfer efficiency. This type of degradation can be addressed with protective coatings, extending the lifespan of the membranes.

    PTFE is a thermoplastic polymer that’s famous for its nonstick properties. It’s also known for its toughness, elasticity, and self-lubricating characteristics.

    PTFE is resistant to a large number of chemicals, including acids and caustics. It can be difficult to predict compatibility, so it’s important to consult a chemical compatibility chart. SSI Aeration’s PTFE/EPDM hybrid gasket has a self centering design that aids optimum sealing at lower bolt loads, reducing installation costs. This gasket features a bonded Teflon surface to ensure chemical and corrosion resistance with the EPDM elastomer for a complete solution.

    Jul 10
    2023
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