TR-202 Zinc Butyl Octyl Primary Alkyl Dithiophosphate
TR-EPC02 Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer
Lithium 12-Hydroxystearate Lithium Grease Lithium Based Grease
Graphene Best Oil Additive Engine Oil additive
Graphite Powder Graphite Lubricant Dry Graphite Lubricant
MoS2 Friction Modifier Molybdenum Disulfide
viscosity and friction are two very important concepts in fluid dynamics, fluid statics, solid statics, and many other areas of science. They are also two phenomena we see all around us and they are really easy to understand given the right approach.
Viscosity quantifies the internal frictional force that opposes fluid layers in relative motion. The shearing stress or strain generated by this internal force depends on both the velocity gradient and the shear rate. Viscosity is different from friction because the shearing force in a fluid doesn’t depend on contact surfaces but rather on the layers of fluid that are moving relative to each other.
While it is difficult to measure the viscosity of a fluid, its effects are very important for understanding fluid dynamics. A fluid with a high viscosity feels thicker and moves slower than a fluid with a low viscosity. This is because a higher viscosity fluid requires more energy to be deformed.
While it is hard to define exactly what causes a fluid’s viscosity, it is generally understood that the shearing stress produced by a fluid must be proportional to the shear rate and the velocity gradient above the surface. For a Newtonian fluid, this means that the momentum transport is governed by discrete molecular collisions and that it is essentially the same as what happens in a stationary fluid (see this article). For non-Newtonian fluids, the viscosity is determined by other factors such as temperature and shear rate.
Kevlar is a high-strength material that can withstand significant forces and impacts, making it ideal for use in protective applications such as bulletproof vests. In contrast, Teflon is a polymer known for its non-stick properties and resistance to heat and chemicals. The two materials are different, but they serve distinct purposes and can be used together in the right applications.
Both Teflon and Kevlar are synthetic materials developed by DuPont. Kevlar is made from a type of aramid fiber called poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide, while Teflon is a fluoropolymer that was discovered by accident in 1938. Both materials have a variety of useful industrial applications.
Woven Kevlar fabric coated with PTFE is a good choice for highly demanding mechanical applications that require both excellent tensile strength and low friction. These include heavy conveyor belting, drying belts for wood pressing and laminating, and release sheets in carbon fiber gasket applications.
The tribological behavior of woven PTFE/Kevlar fabric was investigated by reciprocating friction tests and surface analysis using a stereo microscope, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results show that the contact wear scar of the PTFE/Kevlar material decreased with increasing load and reached its lowest value at a load of 2 N.
Several sports equipment and clothing items are made from Kevlar, including bicycle tires, racing sails, and tennis racquet strings. In addition, Kevlar is an important component in the wicks that fire dancers use to create their flame dancing props. While these wicks are not considered harmful by themselves, the manufacturing process can expose workers to chemicals that can pose health risks. However, the risk is low when the material is used for its intended purpose and following manufacturers’ guidelines.
moly disulfide (chemical formula mos) is a silvery black solid that is extracted from the molybdenum mineral molybdenite. It is insoluble in water and dilute acids. Like its cousins tungsten disulfide and boron nitride, moly disulfide is used as a dry lubricant and can be used in applications such as aerospace machinery, two-stroke engines, and gun barrels to reduce friction between the bullet and the gun. It can also be combined with other metals to form composites for specialized purposes. moly disulfide layers can be produced as a powder for direct use, or thin films can be deposited on a substrate using chemical vapor deposition techniques to produce self-lubricating coatings.
Its ability to function as a lubricant is intimately related to its layer structure. Different coordination and stacking sequences lead to three distinct structures of MoS2: 1T, 2H and 3R (Figure 1). The two lower layers of the MoS2 structure are stronger and more resistant to oxidation than the upper layers. This allows it to maintain its lubricant properties in environments where graphite can not.
Molybdenum disulfide exhibits excellent resistance to thermal oxidation at temperatures up to 350oC in an oxidizing environment, but its lubricant properties are reduced to some degree beyond this temperature. It is also very sensitive to corrosion by sulfides, including sulfuric acid, with a corrosion rate similar to that of iron. It is a moderately toxic substance with LD50 values in the range of 30 to 100 g/kg for the sulfide and 15 to 60 g/kg for molybdate trioxide, calcium molybdate, and molybdate dusts. Its toxicity is mainly due to metal ions (Mo2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+) which are present in the soluble forms of the compound.
As a car owner, you probably know that there are lots of metal parts moving around in your engine. You also know that friction can cause a lot of trouble. That’s why motor oil comes with special additives to reduce friction and protect those moving parts so they last longer. But what if you could get an even better lubricant that not only reduced friction but also protected your engine when there was a complete loss of lubrication? That would be a big deal. That’s where moly comes in.
Molybdenum disulfide, also known as “Moly” or “MoS2”, is used both independently as a dry lubricant and as an additive to lubricating greases. Moly is unique among dry lubricants due to its robust affinity for metallic surfaces, excellent low coefficient of friction, film-forming structure, and effectiveness from cryogenic temperatures through 350°C in an oxidizing environment.
Molybdenum disulfide is typically produced as a solid powder and used as a dry lubricant. However, it is also available as an oil-soluble additive that can be dissolved in lubricating oils and used at concentrations of a few percent. The most common form of molybdenum disulfide used in today’s premium lubricating oil formulations is Molybdenum Dithiocarbamate or MoDTC. This moly type is 100% oil-soluble and can stay suspended in the engine’s oil to provide all of Moly’s benefits. In addition to reducing the friction between metals, MolyDTC also helps prevent rust and corrosion. The results are a much smoother, long-lasting lubricant that will help your car run more smoothly, quietly, and efficiently for years to come.
When we think of Teflon, we usually think of T-Fal nonstick cookware. However, T-Fal did not invent the teflon coating, which is made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), but rather it was a spin off of the DuPont company that saw the potential for this chemical to make a non-stick pan.
Teflon has a number of remarkable properties that have led to its use in a wide variety of applications. For example, it is hydrophobic which means liquids cannot stick to it and it has excellent dielectric properties that keep it from conducting electricity or corroding when exposed to abrasive chemicals. It also has one of the lowest coefficients of friction for any solid and is self-lubricating.
While Teflon is used primarily as a non-stick coating for cookware, it is also found in many other places. For example, it is often used as a non-stick coating for metal gears or bearings in industrial equipment. It is also sometimes used as a coating to prevent corrosion on pipes that are designed to hold dangerous chemicals and as a lubricant for high-load and heavy-wear equipment.
The big problem with Teflon is that it breaks down into toxic gases and particles when it gets hot. These chemicals are then ingested by humans and animals and can cause a range of health problems including cancer, fertility issues, immune system problems, infertility, liver and kidney issues and more. The PFOA, which is the chemical used to make Teflon and was banned in 2015, is particularly harmful as it can remain in the environment for years and breaks down very slowly into the water supply, seafood, and farmland soils where humans and animals eat.
Graphite, Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) are some of the most common types of solid lubricants. These materials can be mined or created and can be used as additives in fluid lubricants or dry film bonded coatings on components that need continuous lubrication. The lubricating properties of these materials are based on their lamellar structure which prevents contact between surfaces and reduces friction. They are able to operate in high temperatures and under pressures with low shear strength and chemical degradation – making them useful for applications where conventional lubricants would degrade or fail.
While the material selection for solid lubricants is relatively simple, determining how to apply them is much more complex. When solid lubricants are used in dry form they require special application methods that ensure the coating remains on the contacting surfaces. Depending on the lubricant, the coating can be applied by spraying, dipping or brushing.
For lubrication of moving parts that are inaccessible after assembly a dry film lubricant can be sprayed on and then dried at room temperature. This type of lubricant is also sometimes referred to as black paste. Black pastes contain a higher percentage of MoS2 and are generally used for lubrication under high loads.
Plasma nitriding is another process commonly used to lubricate mechanical equipment. This modification of the surface of the component increases its hardness and ductility, which makes it better able to absorb strain. This decrease in deformation allows any lubricant or coating to remain on the contact area longer, increasing wear resistance and extending the life of the equipment. Whether a lubricant is applied to a surface using nitriding, plasma arc or conventional methods, it requires careful attention to cure conditions. An improper cure temperature can cause the lubricant to oxidize and affect its performance.
Graphite is an effective and inexpensive solution to help lubricate your door lock. It's a dry lubricant and doesn't attract dust like oil based lubricants do. You can find it in many pencils but it is also available in small tubes for lubricating purposes. It's easy to apply and doesn't make a mess. However, it does leave behind a fine powder that can stain hands, pockets, and tables, especially if you do it overly often.
The key to this method is to coat your key with the graphite and then insert it in the lock repeatedly to grind the chunk of graphite into a fine powder. This will lubricate the lock and unjam the tumblers to help it turn. However, it may not be a permanent fix and you will need to repeat the process if you continue to have trouble with your lock.
If you use this method to lubricate your lock, it is recommended that you reapply it every 6 months to ensure proper operation of the lock mechanism and prevent the accumulation of dust. You should also consider using a professional locksmith service if you're having consistent problems with your lock.
If you're interested in a more long-lasting and cleaner solution, there are plenty of other options on the market. Some of these include spray-based graphite lubricants that are specifically labeled as "dry" and don't contain any oily residue. Another popular option is a PTFE lubricant that is made to last a long time and prevents rust, corrosion, and freeze-up in outdoor locations.
Many industrial applications require powder lubricant to reduce friction, prevent wear and control contamination. Graphite is the most common powder used for this purpose, but it has competition from molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and other substances that perform well in certain circumstances.
Other lubricants include metallic soaps made of calcium, sodium or lithium; animal waxes such as beeswax and spermaceti wax; fatty acids such as lard, lard oil and palmitic acid; and chemical conversion coatings formed on metal surfaces by reaction with sulfur, chlorine, oxide, phosphate and nitrate films. The lubricity of solids such as graphite, MoS2 and diamond is attributable to their lamellar structure, which allows the particles to slide easily over each other, preventing contact between surfaces. The size of the particles, their distribution, and the surface finish also influences lubrication performance. Larger particles work best on rough surfaces at low speeds, while finer particles can be used at higher speeds.
Another alternative to graphite is tungsten disulfide (WS2). Mined and refined, it has the same basic lubricity as graphite but works well in a vacuum, unlike graphite, which oxidizes at high temperatures.
Black Ice(tm) is a proprietary formula that combines a unique solvent cleaner with a pure, lubricious graphite powder. It first cleans the surface, then deposits a thin film of graphite to create a dry lubricant. This provides a better solution than competing products that leave a wet, sticky residue and are impacted by temperature. In addition, Black Ice(tm) is formulated with a blend of renewable and abundant natural resources that are environmentally friendly and meet all safety and health requirements.