TR-202 Zinc Butyl Octyl Primary Alkyl Dithiophosphate
TR-EPC02 Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer
Lithium 12-Hydroxystearate Lithium Grease Lithium Based Grease
Graphene Best Oil Additive Engine Oil additive
Graphite Powder Graphite Lubricant Dry Graphite Lubricant
MoS2 Friction Modifier Molybdenum Disulfide
PTFE tape is a type of tape used by plumbers, handymen, electricians and homeowners to help prevent pipe leakage. It is a thin and stretchy tape that you wrap around the male threads of pipes before screwing them to their female counterparts. The PTFE clings to itself and the pipe, creating a seal. Depending on the job you need the tape for, you can find different types that work for different purposes. For instance, there is a plumbers tape that is colored yellow and rated for gas pipe connections. There is also skived PTFE tape that has high elongation and can conform to sharp bends.
There are two main kinds of teflon coated tape: pure PTFE tape and fiberglass tape with a PTFE coating. There are also some differences in the way they are manufactured, as these two different production techniques give the tapes different mechanical properties.
The main function of the teflon coating on the tape is that it is resistant to chemical and high temperature resistance. It can work under a wide range of temperatures from low ones (-196°C) to high ones (300°C). This makes it a good choice for many different projects, especially those with harsh chemicals.
The teflon coating also makes the tape waterproof, making it useful for plumbing repair jobs in a variety of conditions. You can use it on your kitchen or bathroom pipes to keep water leaks at bay. You can even use it in your car to seal the fuel pipes.
molybdenum dithiocarbamate is a friction-reducing additive containing both inorganic and organic components. It consists of a bridged or mono-nuclear molybdenum core with dithiocarbamic acid and contains several alkyl groups. It has been reported that it acts as a catalyst in the formation of low-friction MoS2 (tribofilm) on rubbed surfaces. A tribometer equipped with Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the tribofilm, and to examine the effects of shear stress and temperature on the MoS2 film formation.
A novel molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate, prepared from asymmetric dialkylamines, has been synthesized and found to be more effective in reducing friction than a known symmetrical compound of this type, molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphate. The compound is soluble in petroleum slack oil, and lubricating compositions containing the molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate exhibit good friction reduction and tribological performance.
Lubricating compositions based on the novel molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate may be formulated with zinc salts to provide antiwear and extreme pressure protection. Preferred zinc salts include the dibutyl hydrogen phosphite and triphenyl monothiophosphate, as well as the thiocarbamate ester formed by reacting dibutyl amine, carbon disulfide and the methyl ester of acrylic acid.
The friction and wear behavior of two important additives for boundary lubrication, ZnDDP and Molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate (MoDTC), were examined in reciprocating sliding contact with ball-on-reciprocating plate test equipment, in squalane of a pure hydrocarbon oil. Tribofilms were monitored by Raman spectroscopy, and the chemical structure of the tribofilms was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
teflon is made of a synthetic polymer called polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE. It's a class of plastics known as fluoropolymers and it has many useful properties, making it very popular in scores of applications. You can find it in coatings on nonstick cookware, for example. It's also used in electronics, plumbing, and even as membranes in outdoor jackets.
PTFE has special chemical properties because it contains both carbon and fluorine atoms. Because the carbon atoms have more energy, they can form chemical bonds with other materials. However, the fluorine atoms are much larger than the carbon atoms, so they "hide" the carbon atoms from other molecules and reduce the chances of a chemical reaction.
Another reason PTFE is chemically inert is because it has a negative electrical charge, which means that it doesn't attract or repel charged particles. This also gives PTFE its nonreactive and water-resistant properties.
The problem with PTFE is that it can break down under high heat. When a PTFE-coated pan is heated to more than about 570 degrees Fahrenheit (300 degrees Celsius), the PTFE coating starts to degrade and releases toxic fumes into the air. This can lead to a medical condition called polymer fume fever.
The long-term effects of PFOAs are unknown, but there is enough concern to cause a few companies that still make Teflon to phase out the chemical by 2020. PFOAs are long-lived chemicals that build up in animal tissues, and they can stay in the body for years after exposure.
Most hot rodders and classic car owners spend a lot of time and money to maintain their ride. They want to make sure it runs like the day they drove it off the dealer's lot, and that their investment is well-protected. That's why they choose motor oil with zinc for older cars.
motor oil with zinc for older cars contains higher concentrations of ZDDP or ZDTP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates) than standard motor oils. These additives bond to metal parts of the engine, creating an anti-wear coating that prevents them from rubbing together. They are commonly used in older engines with flat tappet camshafts, which generate a lot of friction.
Zinc can also be found in other types of additives, such as boron and molybdenum, which are often added to conventional motor oil to improve its lubrication qualities. These ingredients are called "zinc-based additives," but many people who use the term simply refer to the compound known as zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates, or ZDDP, which is an excellent lubricant.
In recent years, however, the EPA and OEM engine manufacturers have directed companies to reduce the amount of ZDDP in their products. This is because the compound can interfere with catalytic converters and cause them to wear down more quickly than they otherwise would. As a result, the high-zinc additives that were common in older engines have disappeared from most standard motor oil formulations. However, there are a few companies that still produce oil with the high levels of ZDDP needed by classic car enthusiasts.
Friction modifier is a special additive that helps to reduce friction between metal surfaces in the engine and other moving parts of the machine. The main function of this type of additive is to create a cushion between surfaces that would otherwise rub together and wear each other out, thus minimising frictional losses and increasing energy efficiency.
Traditionally, this was accomplished by lowering lubricant viscosity to minimize hydrodynamic shear and churning losses but now a growing concern about climate change has led to a resurgence of interest in friction modifier additives (OFMs). Each OFM molecule consists of 2 parts, a polar head which adheres to polar surface metals and an oil soluble tail which extends out into the lubricating oil. The tails of each molecule overlap each other and are held in place by the lateral van der Waals force, creating an organic monolayer which acts like a buffer between rubbing surfaces.
OFMs are classified as mild anti-wear additives which minimise light surface contact and are primarily used in engine oils and transmission fluids. When heavier loads are present and more than just boundary lubrication is needed, then stronger anti-wear additives such as Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are employed.
When mixed into a lubricant, the OFM molecules circulate around the components in the engine and coat them with an invisible layer of Molybdenum disulfide which acts as a soft, slick barrier to prevent contact between surfaces. This reduced friction results in less heat being generated which, in turn, decreases the rate of oxidation of the lubricant and extends its life. Less heat also reduces the stress on the metal components which could potentially cause cracking and abrasions.
Chemours makes Teflon and other fluoropolymers. Its PTFE, ETFE, and PFA resins offer strong non-stick, corrosion resistance, easy cleaning, and low friction coefficients. They have oleophobic and hydrophobic properties, repelling liquids. This allows for easy manufacturing and maintenance with less downtime. It also prevents sticky materials and other contaminants from adhering to surfaces, allowing for easier machining.
Several studies have linked some of these chemicals to health problems, especially when exposed over a long period of time or during critical life stages. For example, the chemical PFOA—used to make Teflon and other products—has been shown to cause kidney and testicular cancer in lab animals. And PFOS, another widely used chemical in the United States, has been shown to damage the livers of lab rats.
The chemicals are being released into the environment around the plant owned by Chemours, a spin-off of DuPont, in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Known as the Cape Fear Works, it is the largest such facility in the country. The company says it followed state guidelines for releasing the chemicals and that GenX, which it is replacing PFOA with, is safer than the earlier chemical and no more toxic at the levels being released.
Hernandez and Seed were retained by W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, and were compensated for their work on this article. The MTM Research Centre School of Science and Technology at Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden donated employee time to assist with this work.
PTFE is one of the most remarkable of all man-made polymers. It has many extraordinary properties that make it useful in a wide range of applications: it is chemically inert, non-stick, heat resistant, and electrically insulating. It is also exceptionally easy to clean, UV-resistant, and has high strength.
These properties, along with its low coefficient of friction, make PTFE an ideal material for sealing and coating. It is used in hoses, expansion joints, and industrial pipe lines where it is necessary to withstand aggressive environments and chemical reactions. It is also found in bearings, bushing, gears, seals, and gaskets. It is also an ingredient in bicycle lubricants and greases. Medically, PTFE grafts are used to bypass stenotic arteries if autologous artery grafts cannot be obtained.
It is also used in a variety of consumer products such as cookware, and is incorporated into fabrics to create a waterproof membrane known as Gore-TEX (a registered trademark of the W. L. Gore company). It is also used as a coating for flexible architectural materials, such as the roof of the Metrodome in Minneapolis. Its ability to diffuse a light nearly perfectly makes it an excellent choice for optical radiometry, including in illuminance meters and UV radiometers.
PTFE is available in granular, fine powder and water-based dispersion forms. When these materials are combined with fillers and additives their chemical properties can be modified. For example, Glass increases compressive strength, carbon reduces permeability and is self-lubricating, Bronze improves resistance to wear and creep, and Stainless Steel enhances thermal and electrical conductivity.
lubricating oil additives are chemical compounds that are mixed with lubricant base oils to improve their performance. They are formulated into packages for specific lubricant bases and end-use applications. The market for lubricant additives is driven by global demand for automotive lubricants (heavy-duty, passenger car motor oils and metalworking fluids), industrial lubricants (metalworking and hydraulic fluids) and a range of consumer applications. The addition of lubricant additives increases the life and production of final lubricants and reduces maintenance costs.
The major functional lubricant additives are dispersants, detergents, oxidation inhibitors, antiwear agents and extreme-pressure additives. These are complemented by abrasive and demulsifying agents, viscosity index enhancers and pour point modifiers.
Defoamants prevent foaming in lubricants which disrupts the flow of oil and cooling of parts, leading to a reduction in load carrying capacity and a decrease in lubricant efficiency. Pour point depressants are used to lower the freezing point of mineral oil lubricants; they act by adding large, negatively charged hydrophilic molecules to the surface of the molecule which reduces the intermolecular interactions and allows the molecule to form closer contacts with metal surfaces.
Grease additives such as calcium sulfonate greases, polyurea greases and aluminum complex greases are characterized by low pour points, good rheological properties, high temperature service capability and water tolerance. Other important grease additives include lubricity modifiers, thickeners and tackifiers. Odorants and dyes are added to lubricants and greases to ensure that the products have an acceptable scent and appearance. In the past some mass-marketed lubricant additives such as those containing PTFE/Teflon caused a backlash among consumers and were condemned by U.S. federal regulators.