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Zinc-free hydraulic oil refers to hydraulic oil without zinc alkyl dithiophosphate (ZnDDP, ZnDTP) additives. For a long time, zinc is an essential ingredient in hydraulic oil. Of course, it does not mean that some metal zinc is added to hydraulic oil. The zinc contained in hydraulic oil is a kind of best ZDDP oil additive ----- Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate, which is an essential additive for hydraulic oil.
The best ZDDP oil additive is an anti ware and anti-oxidant, which enhances the performance of lubricating oil (including hydraulic oil), and is an excellent extreme pressure additive. ZDDP is the product of a chemical reaction between zinc oxide and alkyl dithiophosphate. For decades, it is the best engine oil additive.
The use of the ZDDP oil additive in hydraulic oil is mainly to improve anti-pressure performance. Under the condition of boundary lubrication, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate will form a protective film on the surface of the component to avoid direct dry friction between metals under boundary lubrication. This type of anti-friction additives is most effective under medium and high load conditions, oily agents are used under typical loads, and EP additives are used under heavy load conditions. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate can remove the free radicals in the lubricant, thereby blocking the oxidative deterioration of the oil, reducing the corrosion of the equipment by the acidic substances produced by the oxidation of the grease, and protecting the lubrication performance of the lubricant. However, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate will gradually deplete during use.
Another advantage of Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is its multi-effect-anti-corrosion, anti-oxidation, anti-wear. If other oil additives are used, then multiple lube oil additives are needed to achieve these properties, which virtually drives up the production cost of lubricants. The disadvantage of ZnDDP is that it may corrode some metals, and it is also harmful to the environment. Oils with high ZDDP content cause yellow metal (copper) corrosion, so many parts are not suitable for use with this type of lubricant. ZDDP additive is not biodegradable, and it is toxic to water, so it is not environmentally friendly. There are many different types of ZDDP additive. Different ZDDP additive compounds differ in their hydrolytic stability and high-temperature resistance.
Although the ZDDP additive is a multi-effect, it is a challenge to achieve excellent performance in all aspects and make the final lubricating oil performance better. Therefore, some oil products do not use ZDDP but use multiple additives to achieve different performance. The advantages of zinc-free hydraulic oil are mainly environmental protection and non-erosion of copper-containing hydraulic components. However, because of the low price and excellent performance of ZDDP, zinc-containing hydraulic crude will continue to be used for a long time to come.
ZDDP is also widely used in additives used in lubricants, such as engine oil and gear oil.
In the engine lubricating oil, phosphorus from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), an anti-oxidant and antiseptic, forms a passivation film on the surface of the catalyst, which prevents the enzyme from coming into contact with the exhaust gas from the car and acting. To extend the durability of automotive after-treatment equipment, the engine oil will continue to have a low phosphating trend, which will also limit the amount of ZDDP added. Nevertheless, the dominance of ZDDP in engine oils will not be threatened shortly.
Dr. Smith, an engineer from Shell Lubricants, stated: "To develop a phosphorus-free additive that is a satisfactory alternative to ZDDP in terms of performance and economics, further understanding of the wear and oxidation protection mechanisms of ZDDP is required. The economics of developing and ZDDP The replacement of ZDDP anti-oxidants and preservatives with comparable properties and performance will become a difficult task in the future. "