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There are many kinds of engine oil additives used in internal combustion engines, and the functions of different additives are also different, divided explicitly into metal detergents, ash-free dispersants, and anti-oxidation and anti-corrosion agents. Besides, with the gradual enhancement of environmental protection awareness in China, the requirements on the quality of lubricating oil are more and more strict, so the development of additives in demand and varieties is more rapid.
1 Metal cleaner
In the engine oil of the internal combustion engine, the metal cleaner is undoubtedly an essential additive among them, and its components include sulfonate, alkyl phenol salt, alkyl salicylate, and other carboxylates.With the rapid development of internal combustion engine oil, it is urgent to develop a lubricating oil metal cleaner with excellent thermal stability, low viscosity, and low turbidity to further improve fuel economy, extend the oil change period and enhance its environmental protection capability.
2.No ash dispersant
For non-ash dispersing agents, it mainly plays a role in dispersing and solubilizing the carbon deposition, sludge, and acidic oxidation products in the oil. With the improvement of lubricating oil production technology, polymer ash-free dispersant has been applied and developed. Polymer ash-free dispersing agent, in addition to having excellent low temperature dispersing, but also can significantly improve the product's thermal stability and high-temperature cleanness, has a wide range of applications in the field of high-grade internal combustion engine oil. At present, polymerization, chlorination - free, and multifunction have become the main development direction of ash-free dispersants.
3.Anti - oxygen anti-corrosion agent
In the process of oil oxidation, a large number of oxides, alcohols, acids, esters, hydroxy acids, and other products will be generated during this period, and the generated compounds will further react, resulting in the formation of insoluble macromolecular compounds with oil, which will lead to the decline of oil quality and lead to the increase of oil consumption. At the same time, when the oxidation of compounds attached to the piston ring, it will lead to the formation of carbon deposition in the oil, resulting in increased viscosity. Besides, organic acids will also be generated in the process of oil oxidation, which will cause a certain degree of corrosion to steel sleeve, bearing and other metals, and affect their service life. Therefore, anti-oxidation additives should be added into the lubricating oil to delay the oxidation rate of lubricating oil further and prolong the oil change period. At present, the high-grade lubricating oil has strict requirements on viscosity, sediment, and other aspects, improve the performance of antioxidant conditions.
Friction modifier refers to a kind of material which forms a physical adsorption film or a chemical adsorption film on the friction surface to reduce the friction factor, thus enhancing the lubrication of the friction surface and improving the capability of the oil film. Among them, adding friction improver in lubricating oil can improve the lubrication of friction pair, reduce the friction loss of mechanical parts, and help to extend the service life of mechanical parts.