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Types of Oil Additives And The Critical Role They Play in Lubricants

2019-11-29 15:21:12  Knowledge

Friction and wear occur wherever there is relative movement. Almost half of the world's primary energy is consumed by conflict. Most mechanical parts fail due to wear. Lubrication failure and excessive wear are the leading causes of unfortunate accidents in mechanical equipment. The economic losses caused by friction and wear in countries around the world are huge every year, and the development potential of applying tribological knowledge reasonably to reduce friction and reduce wear to achieve energy conservation is enormous. Therefore, under the situation of rapid global population growth, shortage of fossil energy, and environmental pollution, advocating and promoting the application of advanced lubrication technology will help improve the construction of modern industrial civilization in various countries around the world and promote the emergence of energy-saving and environmentally-friendly emerging industries. It will even have a profound impact on human production and lifestyle.

Types of oil additives and the critical role they play in lubricants

The methods of reducing friction, reducing mechanical wear, and extending the service life of the equipment include the reasonable selection of friction pair materials, reduction of the surface roughness of the friction pair, change of the relative motion form of the friction pair, and consistent use of lubricants. By far, the most effective method is the rational use of lubricant oil. The grease can form a lubricating film between the two contact surfaces, reducing friction and reducing wear. The primary source of the lubricating film is the active components provided by the additives in the lubricant.

What is lubricant?

Lubricant can be divided into gas lubricants (air, helium, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.), liquid lubricants (plant lubricants, mineral lubricants, synthetic lubricants, and water-based lubricants), and semi-solid lubricants according to their physical state. (Grease) And solid lubricants (graphite lubricant, MoS2, talc, polymer, etc.). Among them, the oils in liquid lubricants are the most widely used, and they are likened to maintaining the "blood of normal machinery operation." Before the 1930s, lubricants (base oils) without oil additives could almost meet most of the requirements of the time, but with the continuous development of modern industry (especially the automotive industry), the use of machinery and equipment has become increasingly harsh. To meet the regular operation of various machinery and equipment, it is necessary to add multiple oil additives to the lubricating oil to improve the numerous physical and chemical properties and lubricating properties of the lubricating oil. At present, the base oil accounts for the most significant proportion of the lubricating oil we use, which determines the fundamental physical properties and specific properties of the lubricating oil. Although the amount of oil additives is small, it can improve the existing features of the base oil and give it new properties. Meet the requirements of the regular operation of mechanical equipment under specific conditions.

Types of oil additives play in lubricants

Oil additives

There are many types of oil additives with different functions. According to the role played by oil additives, they can be divided into viscosity index improvers, detergents, dispersants, friction modifiers, extreme pressure anti-wear agents, antioxidants, rust, and corrosion inhibitors, Anti-emulsifiers, and emulsifiers, pour point depressants, suspending agents, anti-foaming agents, etc. Among them, detergents, oiliness agents (friction modifiers), extreme pressure anti-wear agents, rust and corrosion inhibitors mainly play a role in protecting the metal surface; viscosity index improvers, dispersants, antioxidants, anti-emulsifiers and emulsifiers, depressant Agents, suspending agents, anti-foaming agent, etc. are used to improve the performance of base oils.


In the future, the requirements for lubricants and oil additives are becoming stricter, and they tend to develop in the direction of high performance, multifunction, environmental friendliness, and low cost.


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